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The Topic is: HOW CAN MEDICAL STAFF HELP PREVENT THE SPREAD OF COVID AND FLU VIR

The Topic is: HOW CAN MEDICAL STAFF HELP PREVENT THE SPREAD OF COVID AND FLU VIRUSES IN A PRISON SETTING?
This paper must be an argument. It must clearly state the major proposition, support of the major proposition, and a refutation. There needs to be a “so What?” to the paper. There has to be a point as to why you are discussing the particular topic/issue.
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James O Variables in Research Understanding the causes of phenomena

James O

Variables in Research

Understanding the causes of phenomena is one of the major aims of research. The presumed cause in a cause-effect relationship is called the independent variable, and the presumed effect is called the dependent variable. It is the dependent variable that the researcher is usually most interested in understanding and possibly interested in predicting. An extraneous variable is an additional variable that the researcher is not interested in but might somehow influence the variables of interest. In many situations, demographic variables such as gender, race, and marital status are used as control variables. Researchers are concerned about extraneous variables because they can alter or obscure the relationship between the independent variable and dependent variable or indicate there is a causal relationship between them when none exists. Researchers try to control for extraneous variables in their experiments by controlling the conditions of the experimental environment to keep variables as constant as possible (Urban & van Eeden-Moorefield, 2018, pp. 39 &40).

Extraneous variables impair a valid causal conclusion and are thus a threat to internal validity. The technique of randomization is one of the most important control techniques of experimental design. Randomization not only guarantees that the assumptions for the evaluation of the data with statistical procedures are fulfilled, but it also has the effect that causal conclusions become possible. The term randomization just means that an additional random element is introduced into the experimental setting (Bowman, 2017, para. 6). Another way of controlling extraneous variable is consistency of the environment. With this, individual participates in an experiment in the exact same environment with the exposure or conditions such as lighting conditions, same noise levels, same temperature, and same number of potential distractions. This helps in minimizing the effect of situational variables and demand characteristics (Meltzoff & Cooper, 2018, p. 89).

References

Bowman N. (2017). Extraneous Variables, Control of. Sage Publications.

Meltzoff, J., & Cooper, H. (2018). Confounding variables and their control. In Critical thinking

about research: Psychology and related fields., 2nd ed. (pp. 79–96). American

Psychological Association. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1037/0000052-006

Urban, J. B., & van Eeden-Moorefield, B. M. (2018). Understanding terms for quantitative studies:

Concepts, constructs, and variables. In Designing and proposing your research project.

(pp.35–42). American Psychological Association. https://doi- org.lopes.idm.oclc.

org/10.1037/0000049-005
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This is a reflection essay with an introduction, coherent thesis, supported body

This is a reflection essay with an introduction, coherent thesis, supported body paragraphs and conclusion. The thesis -The reflection on the recent persuasive essay and the description of the most effective writing strategies, integration of the sources, exploration of the issue and the incorporation of the feedback.
I can provide the feedback and the persuasive essay which this reflection essay will be based on.
Please, let me know if you have any questions about the project, thank you.
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Ijeoma O Independent variables are the predictor or experimental variables i

Ijeoma O

Independent variables are the predictor or experimental variables in research. They are manipulated in research for observation of their effect on the dependent variable. They cannot be changed by other variables (Kumar, 2019). This is an important aspect of research in determining cause-and-effect. Dependent variables are the variables that are affected by the manipulation of the independent variables. They can change depending on the independent variable. Extraneous variables are variables that can influence the relationship between dependent and independent variables that can be controlled by research or statistical procedure (Kumar, 2019). They have an undesirable impact on an experiment since they were not foreseen before the experiment. They affect the outcome of the experiment.

In an experiment or research, it is important to remove or control the influence of extraneous variables due to their implication on data and the outcomes to maintain the integrity of the research or experiment. One way that extraneous variables can be controlled is through random sampling (“Extraneous variables, control of,” 2017) In this method, participant variables are selected randomly hence all participants have an equal chance of being chosen. This ensures there is equality between all groups.

Another way of control is through standardized procedures. This is where a standard procedure of keeping the environment the same for each participant variable is maintained. The extraneous variables are held constant and participants are tested in the same location, or they are given similar instructions, treated in the same environment, and so on. Also, the task variables can be held constant (Moser & Rosenberg, 2017). Most of the extraneous variables have effects on the dependent variable and it can be difficult to separate the effect of the independent variable from the effects of the extraneous variables.

References

Extraneous variables, control of. (2017). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Communication Research Methods. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483381411.n177

Kumar, R. (2019). Nursing research & statistics. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers.

Moser, C. A., & Rosenberg, M. (2017). Extraneous variables. Research Design, 263-277. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315128498-20
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Neyda R. Research in Healthcare is the standard behind practice change and im

Neyda R.

Research in Healthcare is the standard behind practice change and improvements in patient care. As a new researcher, one may feel that their impact on nursing is not felt. With the inclusion of learning and research in nursing, learning environments help develop new practices and enhance engagement (Nasrabadi et al., 2021). There are several levels of strategies that can be used to determine the effectiveness of evidence. The level is based on how it will be impacted by biases and outcomes (Glasofer &Townsend,2029).

The highest level 1 of research technique would use , Systematic Review, and Meta Analysis. These have been noted to provide the best evidence. These types of studies would be good for cause and evaluate the effect.

The next level 2 may involve Quasi-experimental and Systematic Review, but it may be missing a criteria that would be found when doing an experimental research. This type of research does not have the same strength but can be used for comprising research like a pre and post-test effects.

Level 3 is considered Non-experimental with no manipulation of variables. This level can use Systematic Review, and Meta Analysis but it is not required. It can also be called Observation research; the researcher observes but does not have an intervention. This type of research could be used to see the effect something has. I

In level 4 the researcher is using opinions. These could be found in clinical practice guidelines and consensus statements. The guideline is tested and reviewed by experts, position statements are as well reviewed but also go through peer reviews and are limited. These options may not have the same quality as the levels before them.

The last level 5, has the least quality of evidence which is Literature Review and does not have set standards. Literature Review can give a helpful summary of information but should be used with caution (Glasofer & Townsend,2020). This type of research could be used if you just want to know more about a topic, but it is not Peer reviewed and may have high bias.

Levels 1,2 and 3 ate the best for obtaining evidence-based practice research information that may provide outcomes to improve Healthcare and nursing intervations. An article by Gronning (2022) conducted a study to support importance of nursing students learning about evidence-based practice. They learned the importance of research to improve clinical practice as our patients dependent on us having the most accurate and reliable information. Opinions, reviews and literature are good for comparisons and information but not for reliability as opinions can be wrong and misleading.

References

Glasofer, A., Townsend, A. B ., (2020). Determining the level of evidence, Nursing Critical Care: Volume 15- Issue 2-p 22-26.

Gronning, K., Karlsholm, G., & Andre,B. (2022). Undergraduate Nursing Students Experiences of Conducting Clinical Research Projects in Their Bachelor Theses -a Qualitative Study
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Ijeoma O Levels of evidence are systems used to rank evidence by following c

Ijeoma O

Levels of evidence are systems used to rank evidence by following certain criteria when doing research. They are assigned to research evidence based on the methodological quality of their design, reliability, validity, and applicability to patient care. The levels are summarized in the following paragraphs and an example of the type of practice change that could result from each.

Level I comprise evidence from the systematic review where critical assessment and evaluation of the research studies addressing a particular clinical issue is done and a description of the findings is done. Meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials is also used to provide an overview of the evidence. It has the highest internal validity and is characterized by quantitative analysis of a high degree and scientific methodology that are strict (Greenhalgh et al., 2019). The practice change that can be experienced at this level is test treatments.

Level II comprises evidence from at least one well-designed randomized control trial with or without meta-analysis. The practice change is exposing a cohort to risks and observe outcomes of interest

Level III is comprised of evidence from a qualitative study or systemic review and a well-designed randomized control trial without randomization or better known as quasi-experimental (Rolfe, 2015). It is none experimental study and may lack meta-analysis. The subject variables may have outcomes of interest but you look for risk factors

Level IV are opinions from authorities that are respected or nationally recognized committee of experts based on scientific evidence. These may include consensus panels and clinical practice guidelines (Rolfe, 2015). The last level is based on non-research and experimental evidence which may include case reports, literature review, quality improvement program or financial evaluation, and opinions of experts recognized nationally on experiential evidence. The change plan may be reviews of narratives, expert opinions, and editorials for the last two levels

Studies and research with the highest validity level that is characterized by a high degree of quantitative analysis, reviews, and strict scientific methodologies are grouped as level I while observational research with expert opinions are at level V

References

Greenhalgh, T. M., Bidewell, J., Warland, J., Lambros, A., & Crisp, E. (2019). Understanding research methods for evidence-based practice in health. John Wiley & Sons.

Rolfe, G. (2015). Evidence-based practice and practice-based evidence. Exploring Evidence-based Practice, 99-112. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315764559-8
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I have 3 research references that I used for the project so if I can send that o

I have 3 research references that I used for the project so if I can send that one and also the PowerPoint of the book used? I was unable to download all the materials for the assignment
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This assignment should be detailed covering ALL areas as indicated. Thank you!

This assignment should be detailed covering ALL areas as indicated. Thank you!
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Reflect on your opinion regarding governmental involvement in public health poli

Reflect on your opinion regarding governmental involvement in public health policy.
Review the HPV case study presented in the Learning Resources as an example of a controversial public health mandate.
Select a current public health topic where a mandate is a controversial intervention.
Note: The public health topic you select should DIFFER from the one chosen for your Scholar Practitioner Project (SPP) in Module 1. Also, you may not select a topic that is included in the Learning Resources.
Conduct research to locate at least three scholarly, peer-reviewed resources (no more than 5 years old) from the Walden Library to support your Case Study Analysis.
Download the assessment template provided in the Learning Resources to complete your Case Study Analysis.
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Rita A In analytical health research there are generally two types of var

Rita A

In analytical health research there are generally two types of variables. Independent variables are what we expect will influence dependent variables. A dependent variable is what happens as a result of the independent variable. It is defined as the thing which is being measured in an experiment, whilst the independent variable is the thing that is being manipulated or changed. For example, if we want to explore whether high concentrations of vehicle exhaust impact incidence of asthma in children, vehicle exhaust is the independent variable while asthma is the dependent variable (National Institutes of Health, 2017). Extraneous variables are undesirable variables that influence the relationship between the variables that the experimenter is observing. In the process of research, there is a need to control the extraneous variables as they add an alternative explanation of the results. For example: An experimenter was studying the effects of gender on response times, with the theory that females would be slower than males. The experimenter studied 20 participants in a public computer room throughout the day. The dependent variable is the response times, the independent variable is the gender of participants, and extraneous variables could be time of day or how noisy the computer room is.

Two ways that researchers attempt to control extraneous variable are by randomization and matching. With randomization approach, treatments are randomly assigned to the experimental groups. It is assumed that the extraneous factors are present equally in all the groups. This technique is only workable when the sample size is very large. Another important technique is to match the different groups of confounding variables. Different confounding variables like gender, age, income etc. could be distributed equally amongst the group. It sometimes does become difficult to extend matching within all the groups and another drawback of the same is that, sometime the matched characteristics may be irrelevant to the dependent variable (Methods to control extraneous variables, 2014).

References:

National Institutes of Health. (2017). Dependent and independent variables. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved December 6, 2022, from https://www.nlm.nih.gov/nichsr/stats_tutorial/section2/mod4_variables.html

Methods to control extraneous variables. Dissertation Canada. (2014, July 7). Retrieved December 6, 2022, from http://www.dissertationcanada.com/blog/methods-to-control-extraneous-variables/
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